أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

In the rights of the Rulers are included the rights of the King, Deputy King and master etc. In the subjects are included the servants and the general public.

The rights of the subjects are as follows:

1. They should not be subjected to severe laws.

2. If two members or groups of the subjects differ from each other in some matter the rules should be neutral and just in settling their difference.

3. He should always think of providing protection, comfort and amenities of life. He

should make it easy for complainants to get access to him to receive justice.

4. He should not be faultfinding but should try to forget and forgive if some indiscipline and disregard are committed towards him by someone unintentionally.

The rights of the Ruler over the subjects are as follows:

1. The subjects should obey the Ruler and be his well-wishers, except that there is no obedience to orders which are against the Shari’ah.

2. They should be tolerant, if the Ruler’s behaviour is sometimes unpleasant. In such a

situation they should not curse and agitate; they should rather pray for the leniency of the Ruler and take to righteousness and obedience that Allah may make the Ruler kind and sympathetic. This policy has been recommended in a Tradition.

3. If the subjects receive help and comfort from the Ruler, they should express gratitude. They should not rise against him out of selfishness. As for the rest of the subjects, they are freemen and freewomen. They will have rights and liabilities while living within the jurisdiction of a government, but after going out of that jurisdiction they will become free and independent.

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