أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

This includes overbearing the weak, the male slave, the female slave, the wife and the beast. Allah, the Almighty ordered us to deal in kindness towards these varieties. He said,

{Serve Allah and join not any partners with Him, and do good to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, those in need, neighbors who are of kin, neighbors who are strangers, the companion by your side, the way-fairer( ye meet) and what your right hands possess: for Allah loveth not the arrogant, the vainglorious} (An-Nisa’: 36)

Concerning Allah’s saying,

{Serve Allah, and join not any partners with Him}

Al-Wahidi said “Ahmad Ibn Ibrahim Al-Mahragjani told us on the authority of Mu’adh Ibn Jabal (may Allah be please with him) who said, once I was riding behind the Prophet (pbuh) on a donkey. The Prophet said, O Mu’adh, I said, here I am! At your service O Messenger of Allah. He said,

“Do you know what are the rights of Allah towards His servants and what are the rights of the servants towards their Lord? I said, “Allah and His Messenger know best. He said, “The rights of Allah towards His servants is to worship Him and ascribe not any partners unto Him and the right of servants towards their Lord is to torment not the one who does not ascribe any partner unto Him.” (Bukhari) 

On the authority of Ibn Mas’ud (may Allah be pleased with him) who said, “Once a bedouin came to the Prophet (pbuh) and said, O the Prophet of Allah, counsel me? The Prophet said,

“Do not ascribe anything unto Allah, even if you are cut up into pieces or burnt and do not delay the prayer from its appointed times for it is the trust of Allah. And do not drink wine for it is the key of every evil.” (Ibn Majah)

Allah, the Almighty said, {and do good to parents} this means that the person should deal gently and be kind to his parents. He should not be harsh in his response to them. He should be before them as the slave before his master. {Kinsfolk} Allah means that the person should have good relations with them and be kind towards them. {Orphans} the person should be merciful towards them and rub their heads. Those in need, By spending some of his money and returning gratitude. Neighbors who are of kin, means those with whom you have a kinship. They have the right of kinship, the right of a neighborhood and the right of Islam. Neighbors who are “strangers” are those with whom you have no kinship.

On the authority of ‘ Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) “The Prophet (pbuh) said,

“Gabriel continued to counsel me concerning the neighbor until I thought that he would designate to him a share of inheritance.” (Bukhari)

On the authority of Anas Ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him), “The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

“On the Day of Judgment, the neighbor will hang himself to his neighbor saying, “O Lord, you granted my brother many blessings and deprived me any. I spent my night suffering the hunger while he was very satisfied. Ask him why he was very stingy and prevented me any of the blessings You granted to him.” (Al-Asbahani in At-Targhib wa At-Tarhib)

Concerning Allah’s saying, {The companion be our side} Ibn ‘Abbas and Mujahid said, he is the one who accompanies you in travel, he has the right of the neighbor and the right of companionship. (The wayfarer is the weak and you should guide him to what he wants. Ibn ‘Abbas said a person should receive the wayfarer with hospitality and should feed him until he goes away.” What your right hands possess, they are the slaves, whether male or female. The person should provide for him and should forgive him his mistakes. Concerning Allah’s saying, {for Allah loveth not the arrogant, the vainglorious}, Ibn ‘Abbas said, “What is meant by arrogant is the one who exalted in himself (very proud) who does not observe Allah’s rights. By the vainglorious, Allah means, the one who exalts himself over people by the blessings which Allah has granted him.

On the authority of Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) who said, “The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

“While a man, from those who preceded you, wearing a garment was walking arrogantly and in a vainglorious way, he was swallowed by the earth and he will be driven in it until the Day of Judgment.”

Usamah said I heard Ibn ‘Umar saying, “I heard the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) saying,

“Whoever drags his clothes out of conceit, Allah will not look at him on the Day of Judgment.” (Bukhari)

In this death disease, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) used to advise people with prayer and with what their right hands possess saying,

“Allah, Allah, be heedful of prayer and what your right hands possess.” (Abu Dawud)

In another narration, it is reported that,

“Good treatment of what the person owns is a good omen and ill-treatment is a bad omen.” (Abu Dawud)

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

“The one who treat what he owns in an evil way will never enter Paradise.” (Ibn Majah)

Ibn Mas’ud (may Allah be pleased with him) said,

“Once I was beating my slave with a whip and I heard a voice from behind me saying, “O Abu Mas’ud, know that Allah is more able than you on this slave” Ibn Mas’ud said, I will never beat any slave again ‘f In another narration, (the whip fell down from my hand because of the fear of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) in another, “I said, he is free for the sake of Allah, the man said, if you did not do it, the fire would scorch you.” (Muslim)

Imam Muslim also reported that from the hadith of Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) who said, “The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

“Whoever beats his slave for something which he did not do, or slaps him, its expiation is to free him.” (Muslim)

Hakim fun Hizam (may Allah be pleased with him) said that, “The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

“Allah will torture those who torture people in this worldly life” (Muslim)

In another narration, it is also reported,

“Whoever unjustly beats anyone with a whip, it will be retaliated on him on the Day of Judgment.” (Previously mentioned)

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was asked,

“How many times should we forgive the servant? He replied, “Seventy times a day.” (Tirmidhi)

Once the Prophet (pbuh) was holding a Siwak (tooth-stick) in his hands and he called his servant, but he was late for some minutes. The Prophet said,

“If there was no retaliation, I would beat you with this Siwak.” (Ibn Hajar)

Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) had a black slave girl and he raised a whip on her but he said, “If there was no retaliation, I would beat you until you fell unconscious but I will sell you to the One Who will pay your price in full from me and he freed her for the sake of Allah.

Once, a woman came to the Prophet (pbuh) and said,

“O Messenger of Allah, I said to my slave girl, ‘O adulteress! He said, ‘Is she truly as you say?’ She said, ‘No’ He said, ‘She would seek justice from you on the Day of Judgment.’ Thereupon, she returned to her slave girl and gave her a whip and said to her ‘beat me.’ The slave girl refused to do so. She freed her and returned to the Prophet (pbuh) and told him about that. He said, ‘May what you did be an expiation for your accusing her of such a thing.” (Hakim in his Mustadrak)

In the two Sahihs, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

“Whoever charged his slave with an accusation while he is innocent from it, he will be flogged on the Day of Judgment as retaliation unless he was as he said.” (Bukhari)

In another narration,

“The slave should be fed and clothed and should not be burdened with something beyond his capacity.” (Muslim)

In his death-disease, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) used to advise his Companions saying,

“Be heedful of prayer and of those whom your right hands possess. Feed them from what you feed yourselves and clothe them from what you clothe yourselves. Do not burden them with something beyond their capacity. In case you burden them, you should help them to fulfill it. Do not torment the creatures of Allah, for Allah made you the owners.” (Previously mentioned)

Once, a group of people entered upon Salman Al-Farisi (may Allah be pleased with him) while he was the governor of Al-Mada’in and they found him soaking a paste for his family. They said to him, would you not leave the slave girl to do this? He (may Allah be pleased with him) said, “We sent her for some concerns (affairs) and we hated to burden her with another thing.”

An early Muslim said, “Do not beat the slave for every fault, but count them for him. And in case he disobeyed Allah, beat him for this and remind him with his faults.

It is heinous maltreatment to the slave, both male and female to separate him from his children or his brothers. The Prophet (pbuh) is reported to have said,

“Whoever separates a slave and his/her children, Allah will separate him and his beloved ones on the Day of Judgment.” (Tirmidhi)

Ali Ibn Abi Talib (may Allah honor his face) said,

“The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) granted me two slave brothers. I sold one of them and thereupon the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “Bring him back again and repeated it.” (Tirmidhi)

It is also a heinous maltreatment to both the slave, male and female and to beasts to leave them until they get angry. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) is reported to have said,

“It is a sufficient sin for a person to prevent those whom he owns his food.” (Muslim)

It is mistreatment to a beast if it is: treated in a harsh manner, imprisoned, deprived of its food, or to burden it with that which is beyond its capacity. Concerning this Allah says,

{There is not an animal (that lives) on the earth, nor a being that flies on its wings, but (forms part of) communities like you} (Al-An’am: 38)

It is reported that,

“These communities will be brought on the Day of Judgment while the people will be brought on the Day of Judgment. While the people are standing, there will be judgment amongst the animals to such an extent that the bald-headed sheep will retaliate from the horny and the atom from another. Then it will be said to them, ‘Be dust.’ At this moment the disbeliever will say, “Woe unto me! Would that I were (mere) dust!” (Muslim)

This is evidence that there will be Judgment between the animals and the human being to such an extent that if a person unjustly beat an animal, or made it thirsty, prevented it food, or burdened it with that which is beyond its capacity, it will retaliate against him on the Day of Judgment in an equal way. To support this, we have the following evidence from the two Sahihs: Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) said, “The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

“A woman was tortured for a cat she imprisoned until it died. She went to Hell because of it, having neither fed it nor watered it, for she confined it and would not let it go to forage on the small creatures of the earth.” (Bukhari)

In Sahih Al-Bukhari, it is reported that,

“The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) saw (in his dream) a woman hanged in the Hell and a cat scratching her face and breast and torturing her as she tortured it in worldly life by imprisoning it and preventing it the food.” (Bukhari)

This is applied to all kinds of animals. By the same token, the one who burdens the animals with that which beyond their capacity, they will retaliate against him on the Day of Judgment. In Sahih Al Bukhari, it is reported that, “The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

“Once there was a man driving a cow, he mounted it and beat it. Consequently, it said, “We have not been created for this, but for ploughing.” (Bukhari)

This is a cow and Allah caused it to speak to defend itself against oppression or to be used for something contrary to that for which it was created. Therefore, whoever unjustly burdens an animal with something beyond its ability, it will retaliate from him on the Day of Judgment in an equal way.

Abu Sulaiman Al-Darani said, “Once I mounted a donkey and I beat it twice or thrice. Consequently it raised its head and said, “O Abu Sulaiman, there will be a retaliation on the Day of Judgment. So, belittle or do it more, as you like! Abu Sulaiman said, I will never beat anything again.

Once’ Abdullah Ibn ‘Umar passed by a group of boys from Quraish who used a bird as a target and shot at him. They made every false shoot for its owner. Upon seeing Ibn ‘Umar, they ran away. Ibn ‘Umar said, who did that? May Allah curse the one who did that? “The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) cursed the one who takes anything possessing life as a target.” (Bukhari)

In another narration,

“The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) forbade that animals be imprisoned for killing.” (Bukhari)

Even with what the Shari’ah allowed us to kill from animals, such as scorpions, snakes, mice and vicious dogs, “We are ordered to take their lives at once and should not torture them. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

“If killing is to be done, do it in the best manner, and when you slaughter, do it in the best manner by first sharpening the knife and putting the animal at ease.” (Muslim)

Likewise, the animals should not be burned by fire. In an authenticated hadith, the Messenger of Allah, (pbuh) is reported to have said,

“Previously I ordered you to burn so and so with fire. Since there is no one who could torture with fire except Allah, if you found them, kill them (and do not burn them).” (Bukhari)

Ibn Mas’ud said,

“Once we went out with the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) on a journey. He was engaged in fulfilling some of his needs. We saw a sparrow with its two children. We took its children and thereupon, it started to shout. The Prophet (pbuh) came and said, “Who made this sparrow grieve for its children? Return it’s (children back to it). Likewise, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) asked us about a colony of ant’s which we burnt. And he said, “Who burned this colony?’ We replied, “It was us.” The Prophet (pbuh) said, “No one should torture anything with fire except its Lord.” (Abu Dawud)

This is evidence that it is not allowed to kill or torture with fire even a lice, fleas or otherwise. It is also forbidden to kill any animal merely for sport. The Prophet (pbuh) said,

“If someone kills a sparrow for sport, the sparrow will cry out on the Day of Judgment, O Lord! Ask this person why he killed me in vain and did not kill me for any useful purpose.” (Nasa’i)

It is also detested to hunt birds during the period when they hatch their eggs or slaughtering an animal before its mother. Ibrahim Ibn Adham (may Allah bestow mercy upon him) reported,

“Once a man slaughtered a calf before its mother. Thereupon Allah caused his hand to become paralyzed.”

It is also highly recommended to free a slave, whether male or female. Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) said, “The Prophet (pbuh) said,

“Whoever frees a believing slave girl, Allah will, with every organ of hers, free his organs from the Hell- Fire, even her private parts will be an expiation for his.” (Bukhari)

Abu Umamah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported the Prophet (pbuh) saying,

“Any Muslim frees a believing, male slave, he will be a salvation for him from the Hell-Fire. Every organ of his will be expiation for his organs. Any Muslim who frees two believing slave girls, they will be a salvation for him from the Hell-Fire. Every organ of theirs will be expiation for his organs. And any Muslim woman who frees a believing slave girl, she will be a salvation for her from the Hell-Fire. Every organ of hers will be an expiation for her organs.” (Abu Dawud)

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